Related Tools


About: MICRO-Q (Maugerl CaRdiac preventiOn-Questionnaire) is a validated specific tool used to assess the knowledge of the patient with coronary disease on aspects related to the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD). Initially, the MICRO-Q was developed, validated and applied to 250 patients who were undergoing intra-hospital cardiac rehabilitation in different regions in Italy (Sommaruga et al, 2003). The questions are divided in 4 domains: risk factors (9 items); diet (8 items), pre-hospital admission (4 items) and cardiac disease (5 items). Three scales were computed separately, each varying from 0 to 26: correct (number of questions correctly answered); incorrect (number of questions incorrectly answered) and uncertain (number of questions answered with the option “I do not know”). The tool was translated, cross-culturally adapted and psychometrically validated into Brazilian Portuguese (212 patients, 25 questions, 4 domains of knowledge: risk factors and life style; diet; pre-hospital admission; and physical exercise) (Ghisi et al, 2010).


Ghisi GLM, Leite CM, Durieux A, Schenkel IC, Assumpção MS, Barros MM et al. Validation into Portuguese of the Maugerl CaRdiac preventiOn-Questionnaire (MICRO-Q). Arq Bras Cardiol 2010;94(3):372-8.

Article in English
Article in Portuguese

Ghisi GLM, Leite CM, Sommaruga M, Benetti M. Information about secondary prevention in coronary patients: a comparison between Italian and Brazilian Application of MICRO-Q Questionnaire. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease 2010;74:16-21.

Article in English

Sommaruga M, Vidotto G, Bertolotti G, Pedretti RF, Tramarin R. A self administered tool for the evaluation of the efficacy of health educational interventions in cardiac patients. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease 2003;60(1):7-15.

Article in English


About: The Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale (CRBS) was originally developed in Canada by Grace et al (Grace et al, 2011) in English and psychometrically validated by Shanmugasegaram et al (2012), and it was later translated, culturally-adapted and psychometrically-validated to Brazilian Portuguese (Ghisi et al, 2012). The CRBS assesses patient’s perceptions of the degree to which patient, provider, and health system-level barriers affect their cardiac rehabilitation enrollment and participation. The 21 items of the CRBS are rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale that ranges from 1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree. Regardless of CR referral or enrollment, participants are asked to rate their level of agreement with the statements.


Ghisi GLM, Santos RZ, Schveitzer V, Barros AI, Recchialo TL, Oh P, Benetti M, Grace SL. Development and validation of a Portuguese version of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale. Arq Bras Cardiol 2012;98(4):344-51.

Article in Portuguese
Article in English

De Melo Ghisi GL, Oh P, Benetti M, Grace SL. Barriers to cardiac rehabilitation use in Canada versus Brazil. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2013;33(3):173-9.

Abstract in English

De Melo Ghisi GL, dos Santos RZ, Aranha EE, Nunes AD, Oh P, Benetti M, Grace SL. Perceptions of barriers to cardiac rehabilitation use in Brazil. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2013;9:485-91.

Access to full article and video abstract

Shanmugasegaram S, Gagliese L, Oh P, Stewart DE, Brister SJ, Chan V, Grace SL. Psychometric validation of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale. Clinical Rehabilitation, v.26(2), p.152-164, 2012.

Article in English

Grace SL, Russell KL, Reid RD, Oh P, Anand S, Rush J, et al. Effect of Cardiac Rehabilitation referral strategies on utilization rates: a prospective, controlled study. Archives of Internal Medicine, v.171(3), p. 235-241, 2011.

More information about CRBS, go to Dr Sherry L. Grace Website.


About: The INCR assesses CR patients’ information needs in 10 areas: the heart (physiology, symptoms, and surgical treatments), nutrition, exercise/physical activity, medication, work/vocational/social, stress/psychological factors, general/social concerns, emergency/safety, diagnosis and treatment, and risk factors. Participants are asked to rate the importance of each of the 55 information items in increasing their knowledge about CVD. Items are rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale, that ranges from 1 = really not important to 5 = very important, and accordingly higher scores indicated greater information needs. The INCR has been psychometrically-validated in the CR setting, and demonstrated good reliability and validity.


Ghisi GL, Grace SL, Thomas S, Evans MF, Oh P. Development and psychometric validation of a scale to assess information needs in cardiac rehabilitation: the INCR Tool. Patient Educ Couns 2013;91(3):337-43.

Link to full article in English

Ghisi GL, Grace SL, Thomas S, Evans MF, Sawula H, Oh P. Healthcare Providers’ Awareness of the Information Needs of their Cardiac Rehabilitation Patients throughout the Program Continuum. Patient Educ Couns 2014;95:143-50. PMID: 24457175.

Link to abstract in English

Ghisi GL, Santos RZ, Bonin CBD, Roussenq S, Grace SL, Thomas S, Oh P, Benetti B. Development and psychometric validation of a Portuguese version of the INCR scale to assess information needs in cardiac rehabilitation. Heart & Lung 2014; 43(3):192-7. PMID: 24655937.

Link to abstract in English


About: The IC-Q is a psychometric validated tool that assesses heart failure patients’ knowledge about their disease when participating in cardiac rehabilitation programs. It has 19 multiple-choice questions. The tool was developed based on the CADE-Q, and questions and subscales were adapted in order to match HF patients.

Bonin CBD, Santos RZ, Ghisi GLM, Vieira AM, Amboni R, Benetti M. Construction and Validation of a Questionnaire about Heart Failure Patients’ Knowledge of Their Disease. Arq Bras Cardiol 2014; 102(4):364-73. PMID: 24652054.

Link to abstract in English


About: a questionnaire on patient understanding of cardiology
terminology (TERM) designed for Brazilian Portuguese.

Ghisi GLM, Santos RZ, Britto RR, Bonin CDB, Servio TC, Schmidt LF, Benetti M, Grace SL. Validation of a scale to assess patients’ comprehension of frequently-used cardiology terminology: The Cardiac TERM scale in Brazilian-Portuguese. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2017. Epub ahead.

Click here to download the tool


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